Showing posts from June, 2021

Chattanooga Bridges


Tennessee Cave Survey - Caves Described over Time

I'm often asked, "How many caves are there in Tennessee?" What they are really asking is, "how many caves do we know about in Tennessee?" or "how many caves have been described in Tennessee?" I like to say "described" as opposed to "discovered" since most caves that are newly described were likely known to historic and prehistoric people. Sometimes there is direct evidence to support this. The simple answer to the question is to state the number of caves as it was described in the last Tennessee Cave Survey data release. But a more thorough answer would note that number changes annually. Let's explore just how much it has changed, and maybe speculate on how much it will change into the future. History of Cave Documentation in Tennessee In 1959 Dr. Tom Barr's book, Caves of Tennessee described approximately 500 caves. This was the first attempt to create a single, central source for cave information

Shannon Diversity Index in Top Songs by Year

Introduction Can ecological measures be used to glean information about music, and perhaps music trends? This post explores the possible use of the Shannon Diversity Index as a means to understand diversity within the "lyrical ecosystem." Methods A list of List of Billboard Year-End number-one singles (1) was used for the data collection portion of this project. Excluded from the study was 1948's hit, "Twelfth Street Rag" by Pee Wee Hunt. It is an instrumental with no lyrics to study. Length is the song length in seconds as measured by the first video to show up on a YouTube Search, with preference given to anything shown to be "official." Unique words and total words are from song lyrics that were pulled from Google's lyric search. Where lyrics weren't available was used. Grunts, moans, yeahs, na-na-nas are all counted if they are found within the lyrics as provided by the stated sources. Words per second is a measure of t