2021/06/21

Tennessee Cave Survey - Caves Described over Time

Twilight, John Henry Demps Cave (Sullivan Entrance), White County, Tennessee  1

I'm often asked, "How many caves are there in Tennessee?" What they are really asking is, "how many caves do we know about in Tennessee?" or "how many caves have been described in Tennessee?" I like to say "described" as opposed to "discovered" since most caves that are newly described were likely known to historic and prehistoric people. Sometimes there is direct evidence to support this.

The simple answer to the question is to state the number of caves as were described in the last Tennessee Cave Survey data release. But a more thorough answer would note that number changes annually. Let's explore just how much it has changed, and maybe speculate on how much it will change into the future.



History of Cave Documentation in Tennessee

In 1959 Dr. Tom Barr's book, Caves of Tennessee described approximately 500 caves. This was the first attempt to create a single, central source for cave information in Tennessee. It set the standard for what we would come to call a "narrative" and provided a format to report basic attributes for each cave, like its latitude, longitude, geology, total horizontal length, total vertical depth, number of pits, and depth of the deepest pit.

At some unknown date in 1973, the Tennessee Cave Survey incorporated. Based on the scattered notes I was able to determine that at that time, there were exactly 1,163 described caves in their dataset.

By 1987, the TCS was managing records for exactly 4,663 caves. That's exactly 3,500 more than when TCS incorporated 14 years earlier.

I arrived on the scene with the TCS in 2006 when we were still below 10k described caves with 9,107. It would be 2014 when we finally reported more than 10k (10,067 to be precise). In a short period of time this number grew 11,283 in 2020.

I take you on this brief walk down the history of our organization to make a point. We cannot continue to find new caves forever. At some point, we will run out of caves with natural entrances, and caves with entrances obvious to us as being able to be enlarged to permit entry.



Estimating Cave Totals by Regression, Part 1

Let's start with an observation that is much tossed around in the caving community about caves with no entrances. I am paraphrasing, but it goes something like, "For every cave that has an entrance, there are 10 that do not". How did we arrive at this number? I don't know. And I cannot speak to its authenticity. I think someone was perhaps making a point about there being a lot of things that are unknown.

Could we estimate the number of known caves using data on the number of cave entrances that we do know of? For example, if we know how many caves have 1 entrance, how many caves have 2 entrances, and so on, can we estimate the number of caves that have zero entrances?

Depending on what trendline we choose to fit our data with, we end up with wildly different numbers, each of which are obviously incorrect. If we use linear regression we end up with an R²=0.336. A logarithmic fit looks good, has an R²=0.616, but never crosses the Y axis, so there are an infinite number of caves with no entrances. Sadly, this may be the closest real answer that one can model. There may be millions of caves in Tennessee alone with no entrance, buried in bedrock and collapse, but which otherwise qualify with the TCS definition of a cave.



Figure 1: Cave Entrance Frequency

Estimating Cave Totals by Regression, Part 2

Here's an idea of how one can estimate caves with natural entrances (or caves whose entrances are about to be natural). If we use a scatterplot graph and place on the X axis dates, and Y axis number of caves described, then we see a steadily rising graph, like the one below.

To this scatterplot I have added a second order polynomial trendline. This is our estimating line. As the polynomial line reaches its peak we are saying that's our best guess for the peak number of caves.



Figure 2: Caves Described over Time [Google Sheets]

The above data is displayed using Google Sheets so that you can enjoy the cool "gee-whiz" interaction qualities (and it will be easier for me to keep up to date). Unfortunately, Google Sheets won't let us use a polynomial forecast. None of the other line fitting types accurately forecast forward. Excel does allow us to do this though. Below is what that the forecast looks like.

Tennessee Caves Described Over Time with Forecast
Figure 3: Caves Described over Time [Excel]

What this looks like is that in the far off year of 2048, we will have realized peak caves in Tennessee with around 12,200. But does that really jive with what we know of caves? Let's look closer into the September 2020 update of TCS data where an individual turned in more than 500 caves.


Table 1: Caves Described over Time [Data]. Please note that the addition and reductions don't add up. This is both a historic record and nomenclature problem. Continuing forward we intend to rectify this.

If someone were to turn in that many caves in a single year again, and the above estimate were correct, they would have turned in 41% of the remaining caves in Tennessee. That probably doesn't make much sense then does it? What other methods are available to us to estimate total caves?


When You've Broken Math, Make Stuff Up

Right now I'm saying that there are at least 14,000 caves with natural, or nearly natural entrances in Tennessee. This estimate is based on my intuition of the data, the geology, and transforming technologies to find and access caves. Sources? Ummmm, the above? It can't be infinity. It can't be less than the observed number. Fourteen thousand seems like a safe guess. :)

2021/06/09

Shannon Diversity Index in Top Songs by Year

Introduction

Can ecological measures be used to glean information about music, and perhaps music trends? This post explores the possible use of the Shannon Diversity Index as a means to understand diversity within the "lyrical ecosystem."

Methods

A list of List of Billboard Year-End number-one singles (1) was used for the data collection portion of this project. Excluded from the study was 1948's hit, "Twelfth Street Rag" by Pee Wee Hunt. It is an instrumental with no lyrics to study.

Length is the song length in seconds as measured by the first video to show up on a YouTube Search, with preference given to anything shown to be "official."

Unique words and total words are from song lyrics that were pulled from Google's lyric search. Where lyrics weren't available Genius.com was used. Grunts, moans, yeahs, na-na-nas are all counted if they are found within the lyrics as provided by the stated sources.

Words per second is a measure of total words divided by song length. Repetition is a measure of total words divided by unique words where a score of 1 would be no repetition and a higher score shows more repetition of words.

The Shannon-Wiener diversity index is a measure of diversity used in ecology that combines species richness (the number of species in a given area) and their relative abundances. It tells the level of diversity in that particular area, giving us the ability to say if the diversity is low (a low number) or high (a high number).

Results

Length

Before the release of "Hey Jude" in 1968, average song length was 172 seconds roughly. After its release average song length went up to 255 seconds, a full 1:23 longer.

The longest song, Elton John's 1997 hit, "Candle in the Wind 1997 / Something About the Way You Look Tonight" weighs in at a lengthy 492 seconds, nearly 4 standard deviations above the mean. "All Shook Up" by Elvis Presley (1957) is 119 seconds and 1.66 standard deviations below average.

Words per Second

Prior to "Call me" in 1980 the average number of words per second in a song was about 1 word per second of music. After 1980, the average has been 1.68. There is not a strong correlation to year and words per second (R² 0.255).



Unique Words

Prior to Fitty's 2003 hit, "In Da Club", the number of unique words per song was roughly 83. After that the average number of words per song jumped to around 149. Old Town Road in 2019 broke the new trend and dropped the number back down to 73 unique words. It is noteworthy that the top five unique word songs are all rap and hip hop.

Can you believe that "Believe" (1999) has only 12 unique words, making it the least diverse song lyrically? "Thrift Shop" (2013) has most unique words at 276.

Total Words

The trend for total words has generally been growing (R² 0.462) throughout the observed years. "Hey Jude" in 1968 may be a distinct break point, but by the 1980's hit, "Call me", the trend was very much underway.



The fewest words in a song falls to "Song from Moulin Rouge" (1953). This is another outlier within the dataset. The song's lyrics do not begin until the 1:36 mark, which is at least partially why this is the case. The most words in a song is awarded to "Low" (2008), but 65 of those words are "low".

"Song from Moulin Rouge" (1953) finds itself with a record minimum words per second and Mariah Carey wastes no time fitting 650 words into a song 203 seconds long landing her the most words per second within the dataset.



Repetition

The true outlier of this entire dataset is Cher's 1999 hit, "Believe." It skews the entire dataset for so many variables, but especially for repetition with its score 23 being an average of how many times you hear each word of the song. The word "you" is repeated in the song 47 times; "I'm" 38 times; "too" 38 times; "good" 38 times.

The least repetitious song is Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White by Perez Prado (1955). Its lyrics appear closer to our traditional notion of a poem than perhaps any of the other songs on the list.

Shannon Diversity Index

There is a minor correlation between songs decreasing in Shannon Diversity over time (R² 0.335).



Cher's "Believe" (1999) again makes the outlier list with it having the lowest Shannon Diversity Index. In terms of an ecosystem comparison, this is on par with a Walmart parking lot. The Way We Were, by Barbra Streisand (1974) ranks highest in the Shannon Diversity Index.



Discussion

This is the part of the post where I pick on "Believe" for a while. Look, we all lived through 1999, and despite us not realizing that it would be another 21 years before the world ended, we were all riding on the "Party like it's 1999" high. Maybe that accounts for our lack of interest in a diverse hit song.

Aside from pure statistical significance, there are certainly a number of interesting outlier songs that are worth mention. "Hey Jude" broke the trend of short songs. "Call Me" was more about its lyrics than its music, and began a trend opposite of "Song from Moulin Rouge".

Sources

1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Billboard_Year-End_number-one_singles_and_albums

Tables



2021/06/02

Analysis of American Caving Accidents 2021

Car wreck, Capshaw Cave entrance, Putnam County, Tennessee 4 I've been looking forward to the release of the American Caving Accidents 2021. Many rescues and noteworthy events occurred in the Upper Cumberland of Tennessee (5 out of 17!) and even more involved rescuers that I'm friends with. Looking at the data provided by the ACA editor, I produced a few graphs and did some basic analysis.

Because I know I'll be asked, I'll explain in greater detail what the final charts represent. Basically one could think of it as a means of outlier detection. It's similar to a chi squared analysis, but instead of looking for significance, one looks for interesting patterns. For example in the chart Difference of Observed and Expected Caving Accidents by Type, between 1986 and 1994 numerous equipment problems are being documented. But around 1994, the problem seems to be resolved. What happened? Did equipment technology change in those years? This analysis shows the "peaks and troughs" compared to the harmonic mean of the data.

2021/05/07

So You're Interested in Buying Some of my Artwork?

Below you will find prices for the products: print, canvas, metal, and acrylic.



For print I typically prefer cardstock thickness and matte finish. The price only includes the print. Let me know if you want me to contact my framer and I can give you the whole price. Canvas, metal, and acrylic prints are nice since you don't have to think about framing. If you've not seen canvas, metal, or acrylic, they are all very beautiful options for displaying images.

This is an example of one of my photos that is an acrylic that's hung in the Earth Science building at Tennessee Tech University.



This is an example of a canvas.



I am afraid I don't have any examples of the metallic prints, but they are amazing.

Let me know what you're looking for and we'll make it happen!

2021/04/05

Frail Loops Cave - April Fools 2021

For approximately the last year I have been working with a small team of cavers to document and map a new cave find in Tennessee. Despite only having mapped six miles of cave passage, we have found that the cave is absurdly enormous in terms of volume. The geology and formations of the cave are so massive as to be confusing. Not to be overdramatic, but the mechanisms of it's development call into question much of what we understand about cave development in general. In other words, this one is a game changer.

Among its many discoveries is a river system on par with that of the Cumberland River. A breakdown crawl at the entrance, followed by a nearly vertical scramble on breakdown of about 180' brings you to the gigantic river passage. The mostly phreatic borehole here runs for most of the mapped length of the cave as a network of braided passage varying in height between 20' - 140' in some places.

Familiar, but bizarrely huge formations peak down on us from galleries set high along the side walls of the braided river. Scallops and karren give evidence of super-floods in times prehistoric where the cave was entirely underwater. In places the remains of huge trees hang from the ceiling over 100' above us.

While we aren't quite ready to submit the cave to our state survey, it won't be that long before cavers from around the world can begin to expand on our study of this monster of a cave.

Photoshopped                                                                   Original
Frail Loop Cave Luke Hornby, Capshaw Cave, Putnam County, Tennessee 5
Frail Loop Cave Evan Hart, Capshaw Cave, Putnam County, Tennessee 2
Frail Loop Cave Kelli Lewis, GD30 6
Frail Loop Cave Leanne Lipps, Johnson Hole, White County, Tennessee 2
Frail Loop Cave Kelli Lewis, Signal Light Pit, Marion County, Tennessee
Frail Loop Cave Annabelle Dempsey, Capshaw Cave, Putnam County, Tennessee 2

Frail loops is an anagram for APRIL FOOL'S.

2021/03/02

Tennessee Precipitation

I recently admitted to myself that I only have a vague notion of when the "wet season" is in Tennessee. To fill this gap, I immediately went to my trusty tools in GIS to help me break this problem down into more mentally digestible chunks.

Using North America Climate – Monthly Mean Precipitation data I was able to clip out my area of interest and use zonal statistics to produce a table of data for each county for each month of observation. While the dates of the dataset are from 1950 - 2000, I feel this is a good starting place for this particularly analysis.

Below is a video which shows the annual transitions using the original GIS data.



Below shows the general trends across Tennessee.



For a more detailed inspection, below you'll find the original maps for monthly analysis of precipitation in Tennessee. There are a few interesting things that show up when one looks at this data. October is clearly our driest month, which I found to be surprising. Precipitation is colinear with elevation to the point that certain geographic features are obvious in given months. One can clearly see the Blue Ridge at any time of year, and March begins to reveal the Cumberland Plateau and the Sequatchie Valley. The Nashville Basin is noticeable in all months but January.

Regional trends are also obvious, with the north-east Valley and Ridge province being consistently dryer than surrounding regions and the southern Eastern Highland Rim being consistently wetter than surrounding regions.



If you want to dig into the data and see what you can find out for your area, here is the table that I cooked out from the GIS data.

2021/02/10

Jungle Book Film (1994) and the Upper Cumberland

THE STORY BEHIND WALT DISNEY'S DECISION TO FILM RUDYARD KIPLING'S JUNGLE BOOK MOVIE AT LOST CREEK CAVE AND WATERFALL
A PERSONAL RECOLLECTION BY DAVID STARNES RETIRED PRINCIPAL PLANNER LOCAL PLANNING ASSISTANCE OFFICE TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT



I was employed by the State of Tennessee as a community planner from October 1990 to August 2011. The Local Planning Assistance Office of the Upper Cumberland region was based in Cookeville. Our agency was in the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development, which also included the Tennessee Film Commission. Occasionally, different agencies would meet to explain their role in fostering economic growth in the state, and this was how my love for caving became entwined in the 1994 Walt Disney live-action production of Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book.

Around 1991, Dancy Jones, the Tennessee Film Commission Director at that time, came to our office and explained the importance of the community planners and film commission as a state agency. She concluded her interesting talk in about an hour, and when she was ready to leave, someone in my office mentioned that if she ever needed a cave location for a movie, she should contact me. She wrote my name down and said her department would contact me if that were the case. I gave her my name and said I would help, but I thought I would never hear from her again, or her department for that matter.

I was an active caver in the 1960s through the 1980s, but there are still cavers in Tennessee who participated in this adventure sport more than I have. At 65, I consider myself retired from the sport, although I like to keep up with current caving such as new caving discoveries and for my data research. During my undergraduate at Tennessee Tech, I majored in geography with minors in geology and history. I was also a member of the local caving club, the Upper Cumberland Grotto (UCG), and the Tennessee Cave Survey (TCS). My interest in the TCS is the cave data pertaining to the geographic location of caves, specifically rock strata and physiographic provinces in Tennessee. Through T.C. Barr’s Caves of Tennessee, I, like many cavers at the time,was intimately familiar with the notable caves in the state, such as Lost Creek. For years, cavers considered this book a Bible for Tennessee Caves.

In the mid-1970s, I visited Lost Creek Cave for the first time with the late Art Bosnak, a well-known local caver who photographed cave formations. Some cavers, in a light-hearted way, thought Art was not suited for caving, especially in caves with tight constrictions, withArt being almost seven feet tall- probably the tallest basketball player to ever play for Tennessee Tech. Professionally, Art was a rural school teacher; however, he also had an academic background in biology. He sampled water in caves to determine the water quality's impact on cave life and published at least one professional paper on this topic.On this first trip to Lost Creek, Art and I were going for water samples.

We first stopped to visit his friend in Sparta, Ross Cardwell. Ross did not cave that day, but cautioned us about rattlesnakes and copperheads being in the sink on such a warm day. After arriving at the sink, we accessed the cave by parking on the sink's north side, which is no longer used because of the larger developed parking area on the southern side of the sink. On our trip back into the cave, we went as far as the 40-foot underground waterfall, a well-known feature. Art retrieved water samples from Lost Creek that day and samples at the entrance of nearby Merrybranch Cave, although we did not explore this one.

To my surprise, in late 1993 or early 1994, the Tennessee Film Commissioncontacted me through the Local Planning Assistance Office. A movie company filming in Tennessee needed a cave entrance in the Cookeville area that could be used for the positioning of wolves. The movie company, Walt Disney, was filmingThe Jungle Book,released in December 1994.The location manager for the movie was Edward Bowen, or “Eddie” as we called him, and he was coming to Cookeville so I could take him to a cave that could be used in the movie. I was known to have knowledge of area caves, so they thought I would help find them a cave. I knew exactly what they were looking for: a cave to have an entrance that (1) they could position wolves for a young boy (Mowgli) to encounter after becoming lost in the jungle; (2) did not have cave formations, as these could be a distraction; (3) has a relatively level floor for cameras; and (4) could be readily accessed from a nearby road and be fairly easy to walk to with the movie equipment.

Eddie arrived at the Local Planning Assistance Office and I explained I knew of two caves in the area that might fit their purpose. One was Kuykendall Cave, in Putnam County, which we visited first, it being less than five miles north of the planning office on East 15th Street. The second was Lost Creek, which was much further out, in a rural area of southeastern White County. Both caves were generally described to him, and we would visit the smaller Kuykendall Cave in the morning, and then the much larger, remote Lost Creek Cave in the afternoon.

Joining on the the trip to the caves was an assistant from the Tennessee Film Commission and Kay Detwiler another staff planner at LPAO. Kay was helpful to the film company in the local logistics of having a base of operation in the Cookeville area.

After arriving at Kuykendall Cave, located about 100 yards east of Free Hill Road on the northern edge of Cookeville, we proceeded into the cave with flashlights. Eddie Bowen took several photos inside the cave of a sizable room, as well as the entrance itself. Although it might be useful for a minor shooting location, as opposed to a principal location site, I think Eddie's opinion was that he would like to see the Lost Creek Cave, in order to see if its larger cave entrance could better accommodate a film crew. Kuykendall's location and accessibility to Free Hill Road were good, but the twenty-foot wide but only seven-foot high entrance could be restrictive in getting movie cameras into the cave. In addition, ledges suitable for positioning the wolves seemed to be few and too small.

After Kuykendall Cave, we had lunch at a now defunct steakhouse, Quincy’s on South JeffersonAvenue in Cookeville. During lunch, Eddie mentioned we could not talk to anyone about a film company coming to the area to make a movie. Any leak out may make Disney move to another location. Eddie also planned Fall Creek Falls State Park as a principal location. Since he earned fame for his Oscar nomination “Silence of the Lambs”, Eddie told us Disney was trying to get Anthony Hopkins to be in the movie, either as Colonel Geoffrey Brydon (Kitty's father), or the physician Dr. Julius Plumford. This fell through and Sam Neil or John Cleese took the role meant for him.

On the drive to Lost Creek Cave, I told Eddie that "Lost Creek Cave, as well as having a large entrance, is situated in a large sink, with a 60-foot waterfall that is considered to be quite scenic". He politely but firmly responded, "well, we are not interested in any waterfalls or the sinkhole itself, just a cave entrance to position wolves for a filming shot". I responded by saying, "okay, and I do hope this large cave entrance could be what you are looking for". We arrived at the small, gravel parking area on the north side of the sink. A major ice storm hit this part of the state a few days after our visit, so if we had not visited when we did, we likely would not have been able to.The storm caused considerable damage in the Upper Cumberland including downed power lines and road closures due to fallen trees.

Eddie took photos of the steep walls on the walk into the sink and of the large cave entrance on our left. Unfortunately, someone parked directly above the cave and threw a dead goat, which was now lying at the entrance on a rock slab. We Walked to the 60-foot waterfall where Eddie took more photos. It was a dreary, overcast day and the green foliage that covers the sink in spring and summer was notably absent, leaving this karst feature with a brownish-grayish appearance. Fortunately, the lack of foliage allowed us to see how big the sink was. Since Eddie was obviously photographing features other than the cave entrance, I approached him to ask what he thought about this place. Eddie let us know he was impressed with Lost Creek Sink, not only the large cave entrance, but also the 60-foot waterfall and the sink itself. He was so impressed he was to meet with the movie director, Stephen Sommers,who was flying into Atlanta from India, after likely filming there. Eddie was going to try to convince Sommers to rewrite the script to accommodate, what he thought, was a very beautiful and exotic place.When we returned to the planning office, Eddie thanked us for a great tour of the area.

At the Atlanta meeting, the men decided that what was supposed to be a minor would now be a principal location. In the script rewrite, the wolves that were supposed to be in a cave entrance, were relocated to the grotto-like base of the Lost Creek Waterfall. They built a monorail on the south-side of the steep sink slope for Mowgli to slide in down into a dark and scary forest. The Lost Creek Cave only appeared at the end of the movie when Mowgli and Kitty are fleeing Monkey City. As they leave the dark cave into sunlight, they immediately have a dramatic confrontation with Shere Khan the Tiger. At the end, Disney used the waterfall as a backdrop for a romantic scene between Mowgli and Kitty and the credit’s backdrop. It is likely more movie scenes involve Lost Creek Sink, but these are the most prominent.

Disney likely secured the right to film in Lost Creek through longtime owner, James Rylander, since at the time it was not a state natural area. According to Larry Matthews's book, Caves of Fall Creek Falls, Rylander deeded the cave and surrounding property to the state as a part of Fall Creek Falls State Park. I believe this took place sometime around 2004, but the state website says that it was designated a state natural area in 2012. Fall Creek Falls State Park, not far from Lost Creek, may have influenced Disney to consider it as a principal location. Fall Creek Falls seemed to serve as a primary base of field operations for the filming in the area. Several scenes in the movie were filmed at the state park. These include the crossing at the top of Fall Creek Falls by Captain William Boone and his men on the way to Monkey City, and the dramatic jump of Mowgli off a high cliff into the large pool at the base of Cane Creek Falls. There were also scenes involving the swinging bridge over Cane Creek Cascades and the gorge area downstream of the cascades.

Filming started in a few weeks, especially at Fall Creek Falls State Park. Along with some dignitaries that included local and state officials, Kay and I were invited to the state park for half-a-day to see filming and to have lunch. After arriving and unsure of where to go, we by chance asked a man where we were expected. Of all people, it was the producer, Edward S. Feldman himself, a very nice and down-to-earth individual. He told us to head on down to the Cane Creek Nature Center where other guests were meeting (Photos 1 and 2). At the center, a group was led into the Cane Creek gorge where a for a filming of a movie scene involving Baloo the Bear (Photos 3 and 4).

Following the shoot, we went to the parking lot, where the tiger from the movie was kept in an open grassy area nearby. Park visitors were not allowed near the animal and it was fenced off by yellow ribbons around trees. A movie assistant walked the lion around and tended to its needs (Photo 5). Kay and I drove a short distance to a large red/white tent that was set up for lunch (Photo 6). The catered lunch was excellent and the movie producer, Edward Feldman sat to my right telling us how niceTennesseans were and how the state park personnel were helpful in their filming. Following lunch, our VIP tour was over and we headed back to the Local Planning Office in Cookeville.

A short time later, Kay and I had supper at Applebee’s in Cookeville with Eddie, where he again thanked us for our help. Our conversation about filming gave me the impression that the monorail didn't really prove that useful. There are only a few seconds in the movie involving it and it was at night when the movie viewer couldn't really see what was going on. I inquired if the crew saw any snakes, especially the poisonous types. He looked at me, rolled his eyes, and muttered something like "oh man!" I took this to mean that they probably had at least one snake encounter while being there.

Although work at the Local Planning Assistance Office is rarely routine, it can be mundane with reviewing subdivision plats, zoning issues, and preparing land use studies and grant applications, etc. I was grateful that the Tennessee Film Commission contacted and involved me in the making of Walt Disney's “The Jungle Book”. It was a once in a lifetime opportunity. Tennessee has many exotic and reasonably accessible locations for movie crews. I hope movie companies will continue taking advantage of the beautiful natural settings in our state, as well as urban settings that can be found in our major cities such as Nashville, Memphis, Knoxville and Chattanooga.


Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
Local dignitaries waiting to walk down into the Cane Creek gorge to see the filming of a bear scene for The Jungle Book movie.

Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
Left to right, David Starnes, Doug McBroom (former county executive of Putnam County), and former state representative Jere Hargrove. Remainder are film crew personnel standing around waiting for the movie scene involving the bear to be set up and filmed.

Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
Film crew personnel standing around waiting for the movie scene involving the bear scene to be set up and filmed

Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
Filming of the bear scene with the bear visible near the middle of the photo. A trainer appears to be giving the bear a treat to make it rise up.

Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
A trainer walking the tiger (in the middle of the photo) in the parking lot at the Cane Creek Nature Center.

Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
Film crew location site that was set up in the park south of the nature center. Large red and white tent is where catered lunch was served.

Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
Another photo of monorail. According to the location manager, this apparatus may not have been used as much as expected by the film crew.

Jungle Book Filming - Photo Credit David Starnes
David Starnes standing in front of the entrance to Lost Creek Cave.

Letter From Location Manager - Jungle Book Filming - Credit David Starnes
Letter From Location Manager



The following photos are courtesy of April Moore.


Jungle Book Filming, Lost Creek area, White County, Tennessee 2 Jungle Book Filming, Lost Creek area, White County, Tennessee 3 Jungle Book Filming, Lost Creek area, White County, Tennessee 4 Jungle Book Filming, Lost Creek area, White County, Tennessee 5 Jungle Book Filming, Lost Creek area, White County, Tennessee 1



The Junglebook Watch Guide for Locals


Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Book on Amazon Prime Video

Below is a watch guide for Disney’s 1994 live action Jungle Book movie. If you know the Upper Cumberland region, you’ll recognize these iconic locations!

Time Location
0:15:50 Lost Creek Falls
0:16:27 Lost Creek Falls
0:26:16 Cane Creek Cascades
0:28:56 Fall Creek Falls
0:30:50 Cane Creek
1:18:42 Fall Creek Falls
1:27:32 Cane Creek Falls
1:27:36 Buzzards Roost
1:27:48 Lost Creek Falls
1:27:53 Cane Creek Gorge
1:28:25 Cane Creek Falls - unsure
1:29:42 Cane Creek Cascades jump
1:29:44 Cane Creek Falls jump
1:43:07 Lost Creek Cave
1:44:07 Lost Creek Cave
1:46:05 Lost Creek Falls